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Women's Quota: Empowerment and Participation or Restriction and Limitation


Women's Quota: Empowerment and Participation or Restriction and Limitation

 The participation of women in political life and their access to decision-making institutions, especially Parliament, are essential for their full enjoyment of citizenship, public freedoms, and active participation. To shed light on one of the important aspects of enhancing the participation of women in the decision-making process through their representation in the Iraqi parliament, which is the quota system in the election law. On Thursday, September 10, 2020, the Tammuz Organization for Social Development held its fifth electronic seminar on the Zoom platform entitled “Women’s Quota, a Tool for Empowerment and Participation or Restriction and Limitation.” This seminar was held in cooperation with the Kahramana group to enhance women's participation in decision-making centers, and Dr. Talib Awad was hosted, an international expert in the field of elections and gender issues and a member of the board of directors of the Arab Network for Elections Democracy, also there was Dr. Bushra Al-Obeidi, head of the law department at Al-Mustafa College and a member of the women's advisory group for the representative of the United Nations Secretary-General in Iraq. A distinguished qualitative and numerical attendance participated in this symposium, like the rest of the seminars that preceded it, as the number reached 50 participants and participants.

Our our Colleague Vian Sheikh Ali, President of the Tammuz Organization, opened the symposium and welcomed Dr. Talib Awad and Dr. Bushra Al-Obaidi. She also welcomed all the participants and participants in this seminar, after which she talked about the women's quota in the election law and the main goal of the existence of the quota in the Iraqi constitution and how the role of women has been curtailed by political forces And limiting it to representation in the House of Representatives, which is supposed to be represented in all parts of the state. After welcoming, introducing, and introducing, I asked Dr. Talib Awad to talk about the quota principle, its importance, the basis for its existence and application in the Arab region, a method to develop it, and the countries' experiences in implementing the quota system and comparing it with the Iraqi quota.

Dr. Talib Awad:
After offering salutations and thanks for giving this opportunity, the doctor spoke about the importance of the issue of the women's quota, and indicated that discussions on this topic began in the Arab region more than thirty years ago to enhance the participation of women in candidacy and election, and indicated that this issue is important for women and must It is not limited to parliaments only, but must include local councils, federations, trade unions, parties, and civil society institutions. Also, the issue of the quota needs to be continued by demanding until the goal of effective participation is achieveDr. He explained that the quota issue began to be discussed based on international law, especially after the ratification of the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1979, and it is known that most Arab countries have ratified this agreement with some reservations on some articles before. Several countries, and what we are interested in here is Article Four of the International Convention, which referred to allowing discriminatory measures called positive discrimination that allow women to access the decision-making process. The doctor also mentioned some international events that the world celebrates annually on September 15, including the International Day of Democracy, as well as the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the 1995 Beijing Conference Document, which aims at a participation rate of 30% for women in the worlDr. He also indicated that some countries do not adopt a quota, and here the opportunity for women to exist depends on electoral systems, for example in proportional systems, the chances of women winning are greater than in the majority systems that adopt a single district without a quota, so here the chances of winning will be very few.
Dr. Taleb reviewed the experiences of several Arab countries that recently adopted a quota system in the elections to enhance the participation of women to reach parliaments, but these percentages were uneven in the world, some countries the percentage is 20% and some 25%, such as Iraq and Jordan at the local level, 25%. Parliament is roughly 12%, and here it can be pointed out that political parties will be interested in nominating women a lot, but in the absence of a quota, this interest will decrease. Then he talked about the experiences of Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Sudan,
Jordan, Lebanon, and Iraq. And as shown below:

Quota in Morocco:

Until 2002, there was no quota for women in Morocco, and the electoral system was based on the majority, and the number of women who won was limited to one or two women out of 300 members of parliament, or 1%. After the law was amended in 2002, there was a quota of 30 seats for women, and the proportional electoral system was adopted in multiple districts with 92 districts, and there is a unified national list for women at the country level, and this situation continued until 2011, when the number of seats was increased from 30 to 60 seats, and a quota of 30 was addeDr. A seat for youth under the age of 40 years, and women can also win within the youth quota. Therefore, in the last elections, women won 60 seats within the quota and 11 seats within the youth quota, in addition to 10 seats won by women without a quota in the various constituencies in the proportional representation system. In this experience, women participate but the percentage did not exceed 20% compared to the total number of seats in the parliament, which is 375 seats.

Quota in Tunisia:

Tunisia has adopted a proportional representation system since 2011 based on 27 constituencies inside Tunisia and 6 departments outside Tunisia, and the number of parliament seats 217 seats. In Tunisia, they took the principle that the lists that are approved are equal, meaning that the list starts with a man, the second will be a woman, and so on or vice versa if it starts with a woman after which he will be a man and so the lists are closeDr. Equally, 50%, because in most of the lists, the woman used to take the second line, and most of the lists were led by men. Therefore, in the recent period, there is a requirement that the parity be horizontal and vertical, meaning that if the number of lists is 20 lists, then the number of lists headed by women will be 10 and men will also be 10 equally, of course if this requirement is adopted, the percentage of women winning will be greater.

Quota in Egypt:

In Egypt, the quota system was implemented, but the majority system is based on two types of the majority, multiple districts, in addition to large circles, and the list that wins takes all the seats, including the woman’s quota, the Christian quota and the quota. There are approximately 80 women out of more than 500 seats.

Quota in Sudan:

In the 2010 elections, the electoral system is based on a division into three departments, a part represents 60% of the seats on the basis of individual districts, and a seat is allocated to each district, and this is without a quota, and the other part represents 25% representing a quota only for women, and 15% for men by proportional representation, meaning that 40% A proportional representation and 60% of the constituencies of this system, and the result is 25% of women. Currently, a serious discussion is underway to change the electoral system in Sudan.

Quota in Jordan:

The debate over the candidacy of women began in 1989 when the first elections took place after a long hiatus. Twelve women ran in the 1989 elections, and no women won. In the 1993 elections, the number of women candidates decreased to only 3, two who ran for the Circassia and Chechen seats, and only one ran for the Muslim seat. In that election, only one woman won for the first time a Circassia seat without a female quota, but a Circassia quota. In the 1997 elections, no woman won despite 17 women running. Since the nineties, serious discussion began to demand a women's quota, but there was great opposition even from some women's institutions and political parties, but after the 1997 elections and due to the lack of any woman’s candidacy, the demand and interest in the women's quota increased, and in the 2003 elections, a woman’s quota was adopted in the law. Seats only in Jordan, with a special mechanism for voting, and according to the percentages of the vote, so the woman who gets the highest percentage of votes in their constituencies in the majority system wins. After that, in 2010, the number of women increased to 12, and in 2013 and 2016, the number increased to 15 on a woman’s basis for each governorate, including three women representing Badia departments (North, Central and South Bedouins). Now, there is a demand to increase women's seats by adopting a woman for each constituency, noting that the number of districts in the 2016 elections was 23 and a proportional representation system was adopted, but an open one. Commenting on the issue of an open list and a closed list, which one is better, Dr. Awad indicated that an open list from a democratic point of view is better because people participate in arranging the list. But the open list system is considered harmful to women, because women will win a small number of votes, and this will affect the power of women, their participation and their influence in the next parliament, as they won the seat with a small number of votes. The issue needs to be discussed seriously in the proportional representation system, using closed or open list.

The Lebanese Experience:

The last elections were held in 2018 and they adopted a system of proportional representation in fifteen districts, but the seats are divided on a sectarian basis and distributed in full detail according to sect. The voter votes in the major constituency and there is a smaller constituency in the sense of preferential voting, the general vote for the district and the preferential vote for a specific region, and the one who succeeds is the list that wins the seat and then whoever wins the seat with the highest votes, whether he is Sunni, Shiite, Maronite ... etc. They also adopted the proportional representation system what is called the discount rate and the percentage was high and they adopted the seat share, so if the seats are few in 5 seats, the discount rate is about 20%, and if there are 9 seats, the discount rate is about 11% and varies from one constituency to another according to the size of the districts Then they adopt the largest remainder in the distribution where they raise the parties that do not need to be deducted, and then they restore the general calculation rate and distribute the seats.

The Iraqi experience:
In the last Iraqi elections, the proportional representation system was adopted, and the modified Saint Lego system was adopted in several forms according to the Iraqi method, as they wanted to adopt the division on 1.9 and 1.7 instead of the usual Saint Lego, which depends on the beginning of the division on 1, and the modified system depends on the beginning of the division on 1,4. Of course, the results will differ from one formula to another. In the case of multiple districts, the process of representing the female quota requires discussions and knowledge of the technical mechanisms, for example, the number of seats in a governorate is 40 seats, then thirty are distributed among the districts in the governorate. It can be distributed to several departments in the governorate, and this needs technical work and further discussions with stakeholders.
In the conclusion of his speech, the doctor indicated that there is a great trend by many Arab countries regarding the importance of women's participation in running for and participating in elections, and every country tries to take its mechanisms to ensure this participation, and Dr. Awad pointed out three important points:
Women are part of the electoral process, and the issue of women must be in the public debate, that is, they have a voice when choosing the mechanism of the election and the electoral system, whether it is proportional representation, districts, or mixeDr.
guaranteeing a woman’s quota, which is constitutionally defined as 25%. It must be emphasized that this percentage is a minimum level of representation and not an upper limit, and therefore opportunities must be given to women to increase this percentage.
Serious work must be done by civil society institutions and parties to raise awareness and educate about the participation of women, as well as the importance of raising and developing the capabilities of women participating in elections for women to not only participate in the elections but also to win.

Vian Sheikh Ali:
According to the new election law in Iraq, multiple constituencies will be adopted, as there will be a seat for every 100,000 people, that is, an electoral district for every 100,000 people. Therefore, we are faced with a problem in how to guarantee the achievement of the 25% quota for women according to small circles, how can we guarantee women's seats, and how to compete with other lists that will be dominated by influence, support, and financial support. The other point: We agree on the importance of the survival of the women's quota to ensure the participation of women in parliament, but how can the number of women winners be increased with an explanation from the Iraqi judiciary that sets the women's quota at 25%. Even if women win without a quota, would you please clarify this paragraph?

Dr. Awad Talib:
In Jordan’s experience, they adopted a specific number of seats for women according to the quota, and if other women won, the number of women increaseDr. For example, in the last elections, 15 women rose according to the quota and 5 other women won without the quota, so the number of women became 20. As for Palestine’s experience in the first legislative elections in 1996, elections were held without a quota for women, 27 women ran and five won without a quota, but after these elections, the electoral system was reformed and modified into a 50/50 mixed system based on 66 seats for districts and 66 seats per district with a system. Proportional representation, the quota was adopted according to the proportional representation system, whereby they stipulated in each electoral list that women be represented in the first three women, and after every four women and every five women, women can increase, but it cannot be less, equivalent to 20%. In the last elections in 2006, 17 women won by the proportional representation system, which is a high percentage if compared to the size of the 66 constituencies. However, no woman won in the multiple districts that did not adopt proportional representation despite the candidacy of 15 women.
As for the distribution of the quota according to the majority system, I think that if the seats are distributed on the basis that the quota is not counted in distribution, for example, we have 400 seats and we have 100 seats for a women's quota, 300 seats are distributed among the various departments, and we add 100 seats to the quota and distribute it to the governorates by 25%. By adopting one constituency for women in the governorate and women running for elections, but this method is impractical, and the other way is that women run in the elections in districts and the women who have been added to the quota are chosen according to their percentage of votes in each district in which they participated, and in this case, if we have 30 constituencies, i.e. 30 A seat and we need 10 women, so we choose the women who got t Vian Sheikh Ali:
Once again, she welcomed Dr. Bushra Al-Obaidi and asked her questions about the possibility of developing a women's quota to be an opportunity and an empowerment tool to obtain an increase in the number on the one hand and to connect qualified women so that the participation of women is not only as a number but rather as qualitative and effective participation, and how the commission will deal in the future so that the role is not restricted and limited Women and how women can deal to break this restriction and sizing.

Dr. Bushra Al-Obaidi:
After welcoming and thanks, she indicated that the women's quota is an important gain that women gained after 2003, now we have a percentage of 25%. How can we invest this quota and increase this percentage and change the applicable interpretation that limits the number of seats for women according to the constitutional text that indicated that the percentage Women must be no less than a quarter in the House of Representatives, while the quota should be independent of what seats women get in their votes? She gave the example of the election law in Egypt, which is the first Arab country to use a quota system, whereby a percentage of council seats is allocated to women with a quota in addition to the seats that women receive with their votes in the elections. Therefore, we have the constitutional text that indicates that the percentage is not less than a quarter of the seats in the parliament, but we need the electoral law and how it can be reviewed through an understanding with the House of Representatives and the addition of a text related to the quota for women, and the doctor indicated that there is a campaign in Parliament carried out by a gathering of women parliamentarians for Pressuring the House of Representatives to ensure an increase in the number of women seats or a quota for women. But the problem is that the current election law is incomplete and needs to be completed, ratified, and published, after which it is possible to request an amendment to the law, and this requires effort and time, which is difficult to achieve in this period, especially after setting the election date in July 2021, so we have to go to the Election Commission. We are working with them to issue instructions and procedures related to the implementation of the election law in a manner that strengthens and guarantees the highest percentage of representation for women, 25% in addition to the number of seats that women get in the elections. The doctor also indicated her fear of multiple constituencies and individual election because we are male tribal societies, so how will we guarantee the percentage of women 25% in the elections, and we are awaiting the issuance of the appendix of a division of districts and the appendix of the quota for women knowing that there is no representative of women in the committee that will issue the supplement. Another fear is that the Women’s Committee in the House of Representatives does not have a voice for demands for women's rights in the House of Representatives. The other fear that the doctor referred to is which one do we want to increase the number of women to 100 women, for example, or do we want the type of group of elected women that we guarantee that they are defenders of women's issues in The House of Representatives, so in the previous session we presented a proposal to the United Nations, which is that in the election law there should be two lists, one in which men and women participate without a quota, and the other list is for a woman’s quota, and controls must be put in place in choosing women, for example, who have a university degree, experience and activity in the field of rights woman. In this regard, we will increase the number of women, and likewise, the choice will be qualitative to guarantee us the rights of women in the House of Representatives.

Vian Sheikh Ali:
We are in civil society organizations, activists, defenders of women's rights, and people interested in reforming the electoral process and establishing democracy in the country. Certainly, we have a clear diagnosis of women's participation in decision-making positions, especially in their participation in the Legislative Council. Therefore, we are facing two challenges. First: the success of implementing the quota with its true goal of 25%. We are working to increase this percentage and number by working to find mechanisms, procedures, and systems through the election law and the electoral commission. Another challenge is that we must work on the qualitative selection of women who will participate in the women's quota and thus represent them in the parliament.

Dr. Bushra Al-Zwaini:
In her intervention, she pointed to the negative aspects of the unfair open list for women in the election law. We do not have a problem with the constitutional article, but rather our problem in the election laws since 2011, where we discussed this issue when choosing the open list in the election law and at the request of the former MP Intisar al-Jubouri, the responsible of the Women’s Committee in The House of Representatives and submitted proposals to the House, but the House of Representatives rejected these proposals, and the other matter is that most of the female deputies in the House of Representatives did not demand the rights of women. As for the current un-ratified election law, it is considered largely unfriendly to women, rather it is unfair to women's rights and issues. If it were not for the women's quota, we would not have found women in the House of Representatives, because society is male and parties nominate men and not women, so we all require more work through civil society organizations and activists and parties and women parliamentarians and adopting women's issues and laws in the House of Representatives.

Mr. Alaa Khazraji:
In his intervention, he spoke of his support for describing the quota, which he considers as imparting the attribute of sophistication and civilization to gatherings, affirming the pioneering role of women in society, regardless of its races and components, and a vivid embodiment of the policy of equality between men and women in the leadership and construction of society. He pointed out that until now, unfortunately, the quota is considered a double-edged sword, as women are considered a burden in the elections because they cannot bring votes due to the nature of our tribal society and the lack of distinguished women, and this has become the reality of the situation with the parties and therefore they bring any type of women and they are interested in one or two, Please note, some good feminist figures refuse to participate with the lists. Therefore, we need specific feminist figures who participate in the elections to address the representation of women in parliament.

Mrs. Amal Kabbashi:
Her intervention was about the perception among some that women participating in the legislative authority in Iraq during the previous and current sessions are based on the failure in the political process without seeing in general that the failure is not only the failure of women, but rather the failure of the political system as a whole and women are a part of them, despite the fact that Women in the House of Representatives did not have political experiences and did not participate in political parties in order to have political experience, and after these participation in legislative sessions, we have women who have had good political experience and have a voice and an influential position in the political process, as well as in the current legislative session, I rose More than 16 women went to the House of Representatives with more votes than men, and that there are 9 lists in Iraq that are headed by women, and this is a positive indication that the role of women, their presence and influence in the political process has become recognized and an account is not as before. Therefore, it is necessary to have a new reading of the constitutional text that stipulated that the percentage of women should not be less than 25%, and we have submitted a proposal to the Election Commission and the House of Representatives not to include women who got the highest votes in the quota system to ensure that the number of women in the House of Representatives increases from the percentage 25 %, We also have to think about the importance of compensating for sex with the same sex, meaning that vacant seats for women should be replaced by women and not by men, as was used in previous sessions and not according to the will and choices of political blocs and parties. I think it is necessary to think also about creating a space for independent, energetic, capable, and competent women to enhance the role of women in the House of Representatives, and we must work through parties and civil society organizations to provide political empowerment programs for women. We reach as a result strong female voices with the wisdom and competence to work. Politician.

Mr. Dawood Salman:
First: Commenting on what Mr. Amal Kabbashi indicated about replacing women and compensatory seats, I would like to clarify that the election law included that in one of its paragraphs that the replacement or compensation must be of the same sex, provided that it does not affect the quota for women.
Second: The Election Commission has no involvement in the legislation of the election law. Rather, it can only provide a technical opinion, but it is not binding on the parliament.

Third: The law included a quota for women by more than 25% if women win their votes only, for example in Baghdad, the share of women is 17 seats out of a total of 69 seats. Suppose that women won 25 seats, so there is no problem with that and the seats are calculated, but if the number does not reach Winning women reach 17 seats, in this case, the number of seats for women will be 17 only, but if women win the electoral competition and not the quota, there is no problem with this victory and it is counteDr.
Fourth: The election law secured women's seats by 25%, by setting the hierarchy in the lists, provided that after every three men a woman would come to ensure that this percentage was achieveDr.

Mr. Tahseen Al-Attar:
He presented his intervention regarding Dr. Bushra Al-Obaidi's proposal, in which she said that women can run in two ways, the first under the umbrella of the women's quota, and the other way, the qualitative choice of women. And she is certain that she will win her vote and compete with the man. How would the way out if we wanted to defend this proposal?

Vian Sheikh Ali:
I read some of the questions raised and the interventions and asked Dr. Talib and Dr. Bushra to view the participants' questions and inquiries written in GATT.
What are the best election laws that guarantee good participation for women?
• The quota seat for minorities. Do women have a higher chance than men about the number of votes they nominate to win the seat?
Is a women's quota of 25% good?
• Why did civil parties not present a distinct model for Iraqi parliamentary women?
• Are there any negative aspects of applying a women's quota in the experiences of Arab countries, including Iraq? Note that the recommendations of the CEDAW Committee 23 and 25 do not talk about the competencies or the bias of some women to be against other women according to their ideological background? The other question is how long the quota system will continue to be applied? Is independent and not affiliated with a political bloc, and the parliament is fed with this kind of woman?
• Can it be a special list for professional women who have a role in the arena in all political, social, and economic aspects?

Dr. Wael Munther
- The constitution rules in that it requires women to be represented by at least 25%, and therefore the parliament cannot override the constitutional text, as the percentage is guaranteed, whether or not the House of Representatives wants.
The law stipulates individual nomination, and there are no lists in the law. Therefore, the highest woman who received votes in the district will be represented in the council for each district.

Dr. Sahar Harbi:
The women's quota is useful in all cases, as the laws adopted by the state work directly to spread a specific culture and a desirable lifestyle among members of society, that culture is like the broad and active participation of women in political life.

Our Colleague Vian also talked about the political parties law, which is considered important for building the political process and it was necessary to include a quota for women to be able to run for and hold the position of president of a particular party, or to run for decision-making positions with a political background and know-how. The other issue is the electoral seats and their division is still unclear, and there are several projects for the political blocs trying to implement them, including considering districts with the number of quota seats at 80 seats. The other opinion presented is to consider one quota department in each governorate, and I asked Dr. Talib and Dr. Bushra to answer questions and inquiries.

that are not placed on men, for example. We do not ask men for a university degree and we Answers Dr. Bushra Al-Obaidi on questions and inquiries:
• Responding to a question about the lack of a quota in Egypt, the doctor explained that Egypt is the first Arab country to implement the quota system in 1979, and it stopped applying the quota system in 1986 and returned to work with the quota system in 2009, and in the 2019 law also, a 25% quota was set for women.
• About the question of compensating women seats for women, Mr. Daoud from the Electoral Commission indicated that the election law included compensation for women with women if one of the women deputies was nominated for an executive position, death, or other reasons. Women and women only if it affects the woman’s quota. Whereas the woman should have been compensated for the woman, whether it affected the number or not, because it is again for women and the constitution says that no less than 25% is required, so why are compensation seats given to men?
• She answered another question about 25% for women, is it sufficient? She replied that it is not sufficient because the number of women exceeds 50% in Iraq, and the quota rate in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq is 30%. • Another question about the competence and quality of women participating in the elections and the CEDAW agreement. The doctor replied that political parties want to nominate women and even men who are under the control of the parties and their decisions. Female candidates and candidates may sign a financial instrument that the female candidate or candidate owes the head of the party or bloc an amount of money Too much for his candidacy, victory, and his commitment to the decisions, instructions, and obedience of the head of the party or the bloc, unlike in civilized countries where women of good reputation, experience, competence, and activity are nominated without extortion.
• Commenting on Professor Daoud’s opinion that the election law includes women's participation at 25%, where lists are arranged after every three men a woman comes, and she indicated that this arrangement is considered an insult to women and not a privilege for them because it puts women after three men. It is said that among the first four candidates are a woman, without specifying the location of the woman.
In response to Dr. Tahseen Al-Attar's question, the doctor explained that the doctor had a correct understanding of the proposal that he referred to previously and that he feared that women would go running for the quota instead of nominating for the competitive general list to ensure victory, and indicated that the general competitive list will remain in this division far from the percentage 25% of the quota list is for women who aspire to participate and have the ability, experience, competence and willingness to win, they will go to the competitive general list, the other point is that women who are afraid to go to the list of men, in any case, cannot get votes because they are not capable and incompetent, so they deserve to win. She also indicated that the women's quota is not an insult to women, but rather that the elected list includes specific characteristics for women who win employing the quota.

Answers d. Awad Talib:
• The issue of the composition of women on the electoral list according to experience in Palestine, the list is arranged by indicating that out of every three women are a woman, but this can only be in the closed list and proportional representation. Otherwise, if the representation is proportional and the list is open, the sequence will go back even if it is placed in a sequence Number one, women will not benefit. The other point is, do we need a seat quota or a nomination quota? I think we need a candidacy quota and a seat quota to guarantee the seats allocated 25%. In the experience of the municipal elections in Jordan, more than 25% were given because there are 25% seats reserved for women, as well as women compete for all seats, and when they win their votes, the total number of seats for women increases.
• The doctor indicated that it is not desirable for women to participate only in the quota lists, but rather that they participate in the electoral process and compete on both sides. If a woman wins her vote, she does not count on the quota, and the number of women remains in the quota. Therefore, in the 2016 Jordan elections, five women won seats with their votes, and these seats were added to the number of quota seats, and the number of women’s seats increased.
• Speaking about the quota for women, the quota is important because it guarantees the presence of women. In Lebanon, despite the liberalization and the high number of female candidates in the elections, there is no quota for women, so there are only six women in the council, and this can frustrate the activity of women. Therefore, the electoral law must guarantee Women win.
• In the majority system, for example in Iraq, we have 320 seats in the House of Representatives, so we need 80 seats for women, so it is possible to divide Iraq into 240 constituencies, and women run for elections in districts and every 3 constituencies represented by an additional woman, or the governorate itself may determine the number of women’s seats To the province
• The political parties law must include mechanisms for the nomination, presence, and representation of women, for example, if a political party presents 30 candidates, of whom at least 10 are women, to take into account the role of women, and the political parties that give opportunities to women, women will be more psychologically and morally interested. If there is no quota for women, then this party will be more male.
• The proportional system is better and easier for the women's quota than the majority system, especially if the districts are small.
About participating women and paying attention to gender or quantity, Dr. Awad’s view is that with quantity and type, he indicated that quantitative changes lead to qualitative changes, especially as conditions are placed on women We ask women to do so, so I am not in favor of imposing incapacitating conditions on women, and the criteria for candidacy must be fixed and motivated for women. There must also be support and encouragement for women in terms of courses, motivation, and financial support that qualify them and help them run and win.

The intervention of Mr. Mazen:
Dr. Awad indicated that the nomination quota and the election quota, I think that the voting quota is important to ensure that women win by 25%, but how do we ensure that the percentage of women winning by more than 25% and this needs to support women and raise their capabilities and educate them in electing women, especially since many tendencies are From women to male society and they do not have confidence in women candidates. Therefore, emphasis must be placed on developing the capabilities of women candidates to be more effective in society.

Colleague Vian Sheikh Ali: Summary of the above discussion session:
The quota for women is an agreed right and entitlement, and it is an introductory right to enable women to obtain equal participation.
We seek to obtain a quota for women in all official and informal authorities and institutions.
• There is a complication in applying the quota due to changing election laws for every electoral process.
We have to monitor and follow up on the implementation of this right following the constitution and the law.

She also indicated that the Tammuz organization will continue to hold seminars on the election law, as well as that the organization will continue activities that enhance the role of women and enable them to reach decision-making positions at all levels and the support and development they need for that.

In conclusion, thanks and appreciation, on behalf of the Tammuz organization, were extended to Dr. Talib Awad from Palestine and Dr. Bushra Al-Obaidi for their important information and clarifications on the issue of the women's quota, and thanks and appreciation were extended to all participants, attendees, and followers.
Thanks to everyone

for more information, please check the video of the seminar through the link below:



Media Office
Tammuz Organization for Social Development

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